Health and Wellbeing in England: Demographics and Determinants of Health
Health is determined by a complex mix of biological and social factors which include income, housing, employment and one’s immediate and wider environment. This report provides an in depth view of the demographics and wider determinants of health in England. It is designed to inform discussions about local challenges and successes around health and wellbeing by providing the wider context influencing health outcomes in the area.
England has a total population of 54,786,300 residents. 21.3% of the population are aged under 18, and 17.7% of the population are aged 65 and over. In England overall, 21.3% of the population are aged under 18 and 17.7% are aged 65 and over.
14.6% of the population are from a black or minority ethnic (BME) population, and 20.3% of the population described themselves as non white UK (i.e. not white British, English, Northern Irish, Scottish, or Welsh) at the last Census (2011). This compares to a BME population of 14.6% and a non white UK population of 20.3% for England as a whole. 1.7% of the population report that they cannot speak English well or at all.
The Indices of Deprivation (IMD, 2015) combine a range of economic, social and housing indicators to provide a measure of relative deprivation, i.e. they measure the position of areas against each other within different domains. A rank of 1 indicates highest deprivation. England is ranked no value out of 152 local authorities in England on overall deprivation and is ranked no value out of 152 local authorities on income deprivation. England has an Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index (IDACI) score of no value (2015). This measures the proportion of all children aged 0 to 15 living in income deprived families. The average for All English regions is no value. Furthermore, England has an Income Deprivation Affecting Older People Index (IDAOPI) score of no value (2015). This measures the proportion of all those aged 60 or over who experience income deprivation. The average for All English regions is no value.
14.5% of pupils attending nursery and primary schools and 13.2% of pupils attending secondary school in England are eligible for and claiming free school meals. This compares with 14.5% of pupils attending nursery and primary schools and 13.2% of pupils attending secondary school for England as a whole. The median gross weekly wage for employees living in England is £544.7. This compares with an England wage of £544.7. Furthermore, 5.1% of working age people in England are unemployed, compared with 5.1% nationally.
4.2% of 16 to 18 year olds in England are not in education, employment or training. This compares to an average of 4.3% for All English regions. 57.7% of children in England achieved 5 or more GCSEs at grades A* to C in 2014/15 including English and Maths. This compares with 57.7% for England. Among pupils eligible for free school meals, 33.3% achieved 5 or more GCSEs at grades A* to C including English and Maths in 2013/14, compared to 33.3% nationally. 69.3% of pupils in England achieve a good level of development at the end of the academic year in which they turn five years old. This compares with 69.3% for England.
There are Missing total recorded offences (excluding fraud) per 1,000 population in England. This compares to an average of 78.37 for All English regions.
This report has been designed for viewing at single tier and county local authority geography. The following charts show a range of measures for England compared with either England or the average across all English single tier and county councils, and also with your chosen comparison group. You can select your chosen single tier or county authority and comparison group, such as all local authorities in the South East, using the boxes above (start typing in 'South East' and it will appear in the search box).
The topics covered in this report are:
- Employment and skills
- Safe and healthy environment